General effect of L-carnosine
The general effect of L-carnosine can be described as follows:
- modulates the immune system,
- lengthens telomeres and
- reduces damage to telomeric DNA,
- discharges heavy metals,
- accelerates wound healing,
- lowers blood pressure,
- counteracts the development of cancer,
- protects the cardiovascular system,
- protects the brain,
- counteracts gastric ulcers,
- reduces body fat
- and increases anaerobic sports
In summary, L-carnosine is a completely harmless, endogenous, natural substance with the following benefits to our lives:
- It is an all-round antioxidant that protects our cells from destructive oxidation.
- It suppresses the activity of the most aggressive free radicals, such as hydroxyl, peroxyl, superoxide and singlet oxygen.
- It prevents lipid peroxidation and protects our blood vessels.
- It protects our cells as well as chromosomes from oxidation damage.
- It is the most effective, natural means of preventing glycation (saccharification).
- It prevents the cross-linking of proteins, which is one of the ageing mechanisms that L-carnosine can affect.
- It prevents the shortening of the telomeres on the chromosomes and repairs damage to telomeres. Both of these factors have a life-prolonging effect.
- It prevents carbonylation as a further ageing mechanism.
- It protects protein cells from the toxic effects of AEGs.
- It protects both proteins and phospholipids.
- It accelerates the recovery of damaged proteins.
- It accelerates collagen synthesis and thus the renewal of connective tissue and skin cells.
- In animal experiments, it has a positive effect on the behaviour and appearance of old mice and extends their lives by 20 %.
- It protects brain cells against increased toxicity.
- It enhances memory.
- It acts as a so-called neurotransmitter.
- It protects biochemical functions and processes in the brain.
- It shows amazing results in the treatment of autism.
- It prevents the cross-linking of beta-amyloid that cause the deposits typical of Alzheimer's disease.
- It rejuvenates the body cells in the phase of senescence.
- It gives cells approaching senescence a youthful appearance.
- It extends the life of cells.
- It breaks through the Hayflick border and allows cells at the limit to divide further.
- It accelerates wound healing via cell renewal.
- It protects the body against toxic metals.
- It binds pro-oxidative metals, such as zinc and copper, and helps them escape from the body.
- It improves potency and libido.
- It provides protection against cardiovascular diseases.
- It normalises blood pressure.
- It optimises blood clotting.
- It provides protection against stroke.
- It helps with age-related senility and cataracts.
- It protects against macular degeneration.
- It protects against cataracts.
- It reduces its consequences of acute strokes.
- It provides protection against the complications of diabetes.
- It rejuvenates the skin and eliminates wrinkles.
- It protects our joints.
- It supports weight loss.
- It prevents or eliminates cellulite.
- It strengthens the muscles and prevents fatigue.
- It has antitumoural activity.
- It strengthens the body's defences.
The antioxidant effect of L-carnosine
Around 80 % of all diseases, including premature ageing, are attributed to cell destruction by free radicals. Every day, our approximately 37,2 trillion cells are exposed to about 10-80,000 free radical attacks.
What are free radicals?
Free radicals are produced by ozone, UV radiation, nicotine, drugs and stress, but are also produced naturally by various metabolic processes in our body.
What does free radical oxidation mean?
To put it vividly for laypeople, in the words of Prof. Kulkinsky:
‘They swim like white sharks in the biochemical sea of our small organic farms, they enter lightning-fast irreversible compounds, attack sensitive amino acids, fats, cell membranes and do not stop at the genetic material.
They provoke chain reactions and form intermediate and degradation products as well as ‘molecular mixtures’ that have no biological benefit. At the end of such reactions, substances remain which the body does not know what to do with, or even completely destroyed cells. Gradually they fill the landfills in our body and hinder its functions until, one day, nothing works’.
L-carnosine has the extraordinary ability to neutralise even the most destructive free radicals. This includes even those which elude other antioxidants, such as vitamins C, E, selenium, beta-carotene, Q10, and others, such as superoxide, hydroxal radicals, peroxal radicals, and singlet oxygen!
Heavy metal binding effect of L-carnosine
By combining with toxic metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, nickel and cadmium, as well as pro-oxidant metals such as copper and zinc, it helps the body to get rid of these harmful substances.
Special effect of L-carnosine
The general advantages of L-carnosine promise a broad, special effect on various diseases. These include the following diseases or undesirable conditions on which L-carnosine can exert beneficial effects:
Rejuvenating effect of L-carnosine
See the detailed documentation under ‘L-carnosine anti-ageing’. For the most part, L-carnosine is associated with anti-ageing, or biological rejuvenation, which in various studies, which will be discussed later in the book, where L-carnosine is seen to have a fantastic effect.
Effect of L-carnosine on Alzheimer's
Multifactorial causes of Alzheimer's are under discussion. It is likely that a protein called proteasome, which is responsible for the breakdown and removal of damaged brain cells from the brain, is not produced properly.
Here, L-carnosine unleashes its positive effects by protecting the proteasome and thus helping to prevent Alzheimer's or causing improvement in existing Alzheimer's conditions.
L-carnosine fights the alpha and beta-unsaturated aldehyde acroleins, which can destroy brain cells. It also prevents damage to brain cells caused by ß-amyloid by acting as a classical beta-amyloid blocker and providing protection against dementia.
As one of the strongest, if not the most powerful antioxidant, it provides against aldehyde attacks. It binds the destructive heavy metals in the brain cells and in the blood and helps to eliminate them.
Effect of L-carnosine on schizophrenia and epilepsy
Carbonylation (hypoglycaemia) and brain cell oxidation are among the primary causes of schizophrenia and epilepsy.
As we have already read, L-carnosine is the most efficient anti-carbonylation agent available to humans and is also by far the most successful antioxidant. These two properties qualify L-carnosine to prevent or alleviate the above diseases in an optimal manner.
Effect of L-carnosine on autism, Asperger’s syndrome and dyslexia
There are numerous cases in which people have experienced an improvement in the above diseases in a few days to weeks. L-carnosine acts as a neuro-transmitter, connecting to other carriers in the brain and improving the condition of autism, Asperger’s syndrome, dyslexia and other neurological disorders.
According to Dr. Michael Chez, who has treated more than 1,000 autistic children with L-carnosine since 2001, the condition of 80-90 % of children improved within eight weeks. Specifically, this included reaction time, social awareness, reading ability and playing skills.
Effect of L-carnosine on Parkinson's disease
Recent studies suggest that Parkinson's disease is primarily due to the destructive effects of certain free radicals that produce a substance called alpha-synuclein during oxidation. Various studies have proved that L-carnosine is able to successfully defy the oxidation and thus the formation of alpha-synuclein (see point ‘Studies’).
Other neurological disorders and cognitive disorders that can positively affect L-carnosine
In addition to Alzheimer’s and dementia , L-carnosine can positively influence or prevent the following diseases:
- Tourette syndrome
- Asperger’s syndrome
Effect of L-carnosine on neuromuscular disorders
The intake of L-carnosine may lead to relief of the following neuromuscular disorders:
- muscular dystrophies
- myasthenia gravis
- mitochondrial myopathy
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Effect of L-carnosine against cancer
Laboratory tests on cell cultures of different cancers have shown that L-carnosine has apparently a cytotoxic (toxic) effect on human cancer cells. The cell cultures were soon free of cancer cells once L-carnosine was added.
Effect on age-related sight problems and cataracts
In the form of special eye drops called ‘NAC drops’, L-carnosine is extremely effective against age-related visual impairment and cataracts (see ‘Studies’).
Effect of L-carnosine on cardiovascular diseases
Over time, the body loses L-carnosine, which means that the carnosine stores in skeletal muscle and the heart muscle become depleted in old age.
An additional dose of L-carnosine can prevent cardiovascular diseases via the following mechanisms of action:
- L-carnosine increases the contraction of the heart muscle during its work; the heart can work more efficiently and more economically.
- L-carnosine reduces high blood pressure, which gradually damages the heart.
- L-carnosine lowers elevated cholesterol, which causes to deposits and atherosclerosis.
- L-carnosine not only prevents the development of atherosclerosis, but can even partially reverse it.
- L-carnosine prevents hypoxia in coronary heart disease.
Effect of L-carnosine on stroke
The consequences of a stroke manifest themselves in the form of inadequate oxygenation of individual brain areas. Depending on the duration and intensity of this oxygen deficiency, severe damage of various degrees can occur. In most cases, there is paralysis in half of the body, which manifests itself in the form of a more or less severe paralysis of the facial muscles, a paralysis of the extremities also frequently results, i.e. the arm or leg muscles of the body half affected by the stroke.
In the case of damage to the left hemisphere, speech disorders, which can even lead to complete loss of speech ability, are common. Depending on which areas in the brain are damaged due to an oxygen deficiency, the stroke can also lead to difficulties reading and writing.
L-carnosine protects against stroke
L-carnosine can prevent a stroke through its antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering effects as well as its protective action against atherosclerosis.
L-carnosine protects against the serious damage of an acute stroke
In studies, L-carnosine has shown a protective effect on the brain cells during a stroke. L-carnosine acts as a neuro-carrier and also protects the cellular enzyme ‘proteasome’ from destruction. On the other hand, it prevents overstimulation of the brain by certain receptors.
Effect of L-carnosine on potency problems and libido weakness
An absolute prerequisite for achieving and maintaining an erection is the production of nitric oxide, abbreviated ‘NO’. However, carnosine is the natural substrate for nitric oxide, which means that L-carnosine naturally strengthens the potency.
Effect on diabetes
Diabetes causes many unpleasant side effects and complications. A diabetic excretes increased amounts of L-carnosine, in addition, diabetes increases glycation, the saccharification of proteins and blood vessels, and thus their hardening and the promotion of early atherosclerosis (vessel hardening and calcification). This makes diabetes patients 3 times more susceptible to heart attacks and strokes than non-diabetics.
Since L-carnosine controls the blood sugar content via the H3 receptors of the autonomic nervous system, it is recommended for diabetics, in both a therapeutic as well as a preventive capacity.
Furthermore, L-carnosine prevents glycation and can thus prevent diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and damage to the eye.
In addition, the intake of L-carnosine in pregnancy increases the glucose tolerance of the child and thus reduces the risk of diabetes.
L-carnosine and anti-ageing
L-carnosine works against ageing and rejuvenates actively
In most cases, L-carnosine is associated with anti-ageing, or biological rejuvenation, on which it has been shown to have a fantastic effect in various studies, which we will discuss later.
How does L-carnosine work against ageing and how does it rejuvenate cells?
The role of the enzyme ‘telomerase’ is crucial in ageing. The Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology 2009 went to researchers Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, and Jack W. Szostak for deciphering the ageing process and the role of the telomerase enzyme, which protects telomeres from shortening.
Telomeres form the ends of the chromosomes to which the DNA strands are packed tightly inside the cell.
The two researchers Szostak, from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Blackburn from the University of California, were the first to show that the special DNA sequence of the telomeres protects the genome from destruction.
In collaboration with Blackburn, the third researcher of the Greider team at John Hopkins University, they succeeded in discovering the enzyme ‘telomerase’, which produces the telomeres and prevents them from being shortened.
The shortening of the telomeres plays the primary role in the natural ageing process of our cells. If these fall below a certain length, the cell is no longer able to divide further, which leads to its rapid cell death. A crucial factor for life extension is therefore the activation of the enzyme ‘telomerase’ as well as the protection of the telomeres from shortening. Chinese researchers were able to verify the of L-carnosine in studies (see ‘Studies’).
Protection against degenerative ageing processes
The biological ageing of our bodies is also based on various degenerative mechanisms. Today's knowledge of gerontology (the research of ageing) suggest that biological ageing occurs mainly through the four mechanisms: Cell oxidation, carbonylation, glycation and crosslinking of collagens.
Amazingly, L-carnosine succeeds in successfully fighting all four crucial ageing mechanisms:
- antioxidation: as a highly effective antioxidant, L-carnosine repels even the most stubborn, destructive radicals that fail other antioxidants, such as hydroxyl, peroxyl, superoxide and singlet oxygen.
- anti-carbonylation: this is an age-dependent process in which the skin matrix is changed due to constant protein damage. L-carnosine is today considered the most efficient anti-carbonylation agent known to date!
- protection against cross-linking: weakness in the connective tissue, a reduction in elasticity and wrinkles are attributable to the cross-linking properties of ageing skin. The L-carnosine has the ability to protect the skin from cross-linking and thus ageing.
- anti-glycation: another essential aspect of physical ageing is glycation. This refers to the saccharification and thus hardening of the body's own proteins, which leads to loss of protein function, atherosclerosis, loss of flexibility of proteins, inflammation, diabetes and other age-related problems. Each of us is familiar with the visible results of glycation, which arise in the form of brown spots on the skin of older people.
L-carnosine provides reliable protection against the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and acts against glycation more strongly than any other known substance does. What's more, it protects against the 50x higher oxidative stress that a glycosylated protein produces compared to a non-glycosylated protein.
Since glycation first manifests itself in the wrinkling of our skin, the anti-glycation properties of L-carnosine contribute to quick skin smoothing.
Other rejuvenating and life-prolonging aspects of L-carnosine:
Cell rejuvenation: today's research assumes that each of our cells can divide only 60-80 times; after that, they reach a natural limit called ‘Hayflick Border’.
L-carnosine has the extraordinary ability to rejuvenate cells approaching senescence (the end of a cell's life cycle).
This is demonstrated under the microscope by restoring an appearance that is unique to young cells. The lifespan of the cells is prolonged.
While the ageing of a cell was considered to be irreversible (not reversible), Australian researchers were able to prove otherwise in sensational experiments by extending the lifetime of human cells to 413 days in a nutrient medium containing carnosine; the control group (without carnosine) only achieved a lifespan of 130 days!
Protects hereditary characteristics: L-carnosine provides reliable protection for the DNA (the hereditary molecules) of our cells from damage caused by oxidation.
Protects the brain: deposits of heavy metals and other toxic substances accumulate and lead to memory loss and Alzheimer's, especially in old age. Again, L-carnosine can provide reliable protection.